If you are new, or unfamiliar with what "tudei" and "noble" refer to, please visit this page which describes the definitions of these terms before proceeding. http://www.kavaforums.com/forum/wiki/kava-definitions/ http://www.naturalproductsinsider.c...der-tv-new-science-may-boost-kava-market.aspx [TRANSCRIPT compiled from video] Interviewer: Hello I’m Steve Myers, Senior Editor at Natural Products Insider Magazine and I’m here at the 13th annual Oxford International Conference on the science and regulation of botanicals here at University of Mississippi. With me is Dr. Chris Xing, Associate Professor in the Department of Medicinal Chemistry at University of Minnesota. Thanks for joining us Dr. Xing. Dr. Xing. “It is my pleasure to be here” Interviewer: In your presentation today you talk in great detail about the rise, the fall and the resurrection of Kava. When you look at what history tells us what, you’ve learned up to this date with any new research, and you assess the risk and the benefit of Kava. What Kava can do for people and what the risks are taking Kava, what have we learned about each side of that equation including the different cultivars? Dr. Xing: Alright so as you mentioned that, Kava has had a rise at the fall and right now it looks like it’s coming back and Kava was used as an anxiolytic in Europe for a number of years in Europe and it was pulled from the market because there were rare hepatotoxic cases observed among Kava users. And recently it was found that, the kava was demonstrated to have very strong anxiolytic activity in recent clinical trials, double blinded randomized trials and it’s hepatotoxic risk is probably due to a wrong cultivar, not recommended for traditional use. And that cultivar is called, "Tudie kava". And the reason that the Tudei kava got into the market, is because mainly, because it grows faster and offers a higher yield. But it turned out over recent analysis in combination with the work from [inaudible] demonstrated that this Tudei contains higher level of a certain type of chemical that can deplete Glutathione that compromises the liver function for detoxification function which may contribute to the observed hepatotoxicity among kava users. So, given that we understand the cause of the hepatotoxic risk and recent clinical validation of kava’s anxiolytic activity, we believe that, Kava, with proper standardization, removing its hepatotoxic species, starting with the right starting materials go through the quality controls, it will benefit human as an anxiolytic and as a dietary supplement. Interviewer: Wow, very fascinating developments with Kava. Thank you for joining us here today and for all the great information. Dr. Xing: Thank you. It is my pleasure Interviewer: Thanks for tuning in and check out our other videos from here at the International Botanical Conference here at the University of Mississippi.